Osvaldo P.M. Vitalia, Tarcisio B. Celestinob, Antonio Bobeta
It is well-known that rock masses may present marked stress anisotropy. However, most of the tunnel analyses (numericalandanalytical)assumethetunnelaxisalignedwithoneoftheprincipalstressdirections. Whenthisis not the case, axial shear stresses appear, which then are neglected, as it is done in all analytical solutions available for tunnel analysis. Existing solutions may consider advanced nonlinear ground behavior (i.e. elasticbrittle-plastic with e.g. Hoek and Brown failure criteria), linear-elastic ground with transversely anisotropic properties, seismic loading, groundwater and support, etc., butall consider thatthe axis ofthe tunnel aligns with one of the principal far-ﬁeld stresses. This is also what is generally assumed when conducting more sophisticated, three dimensional numerical analyses. In this paper, an analytical solution to calculate the stresses and displacements induced by far-ﬁeld axial shear stresses is presented. Solutions for supported and unsupported tunnels are provided. The proposed analytical solution can be combined with the classical Kirsch and EinsteinSchwartz solutions to determine the complete stress and displacement ﬁelds around the tunnel. Further, the eﬀects of stress anisotropy are discussed."
MIDAS IT has accomplished impracticable tasks, overcoming the difficult environment of the CAE industry in Korea. By using engineering simulation technology based on our own techniques through high-tech graphics, we have been developing as the biggest company that offers CAE software solution to the world.